Ophthalmic diagnostic tests, orbital anatomy, and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris)

Arianne P. Oriá*, Alberto Vinícius D. Oliveira, Melissa H. Pinna, Emanoel F. Martins Filho, Alessandra Estrela-Lima, Tiago C. Peixoto, Renata Maria M. da Silva, Fernanda O. Santana, Íris Daniela S. Meneses, Kátia G. Requião, Ron Ofri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for selected diagnostic tests, and to describe the orbital anatomy and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman. Method: A total of 35 Caiman latirostris that were free of obvious ocular diseases were used to measure the parameters in this investigation. Ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests were conducted, including evaluation of tear production with Schirmer Tear test-1 (STT1), culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, applanation tonometry, conjunctival cytology, nictiating membrane incursion frequency test (NMIFT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), palpebral fissure length measurement (PFL) and B-mode ultrasonography. Adnexal histology and skull samples were studied. Results: Mean (±SD) STT1 was 3.4 ± 3.6 mm/min (95% confidence interval of 2.01-4.78 mm/min), intraocular pressure (IOP) was 12.9 ± 6.2 mmHg, NMIFT was 6.0 ± 3.5, EAPPTT was 17.1 ± 2.5 mm/min, PFL was 28.9 ± 3.0 mm, anterior chamber depth was 3.1 ± 0.3 mm, lens axial length was 8.4 ± 0.6 mm, vitreous chamber depth was 7.9 ± 0.7 mm and axial globe length was 19.9 ± 1.3 mm. For all animals evaluated, Bacillus sp., Diphteroids and Staphylococcus sp. were predominant.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)30-39
Number of pages10
JournalVeterinary Ophthalmology
Issue numbers1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


  • B-mode
  • Bacterial flora
  • Caiman
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Schirmer tear test
  • Ultrasound


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