Background: Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is an uncommon benign epithelial lesion which mainly appears in inflamed oral epithelium. In this study, our aim was to present new cases of oral VX (OVX) in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and review the literature. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of cGVHD patients (2012–2019) to reveal cases of OVX. The demographics, medical background, clinical presentation, treatment provided, and follow-up were obtained. Additionally, Medline was searched using the terms “graft-versus-host disease,” “verruciform xanthoma,” and “oral.” Of the articles, the above-mentioned demographic and clinical features were retrieved. Results: The patient pool included 133 oral cGVHD patients. Three cGVHD patients (males, aged 15–49 years, post-hematologic malignancy) were diagnosed with OVX. All patients had oral mucosal lichenoid lesions, but not in close proximity to the VX lesion. Medline searches revealed 9 cases of OVX in cGVHD patients reported in the literature. Eleven of the 12 patients had oral mucosal lichenoid lesions. Four patients had multiple OVX lesions. All lesions were asymptomatic. Six patients had lesions in the masticatory mucosa (hard palate and gingiva) and 4 patients had lesions in the buccal mucosa. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest published OVX in cGVHD series, including 12 patients. It appears that despite the higher prevalence in cGVHD patients relative to the general population, OVXs do not necessarily develop in sites with lichenoid lesions. It is advised that clinicians be familiar with the clinical and histological features in order to consider OVX in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions in cGVHD patients.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Dr. Alexander Maly, from the Department of Pathology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
© 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Chronic graft-versus-host disease
- Oral complications
- Oral medicine
- Verruciform xanthoma