Outsourcing of Housework and the Transition to a Second Birth in Germany

Liat Raz-Yurovich*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The struggle that women face in reconciling their work and family roles is one of the main explanations proposed for the rapid decline in fertility rates in some developed countries. This study examines the role of the outsourcing of housework in reducing such role incompatibility and in increasing fertility among women in Germany—a country with below-replacement fertility rates, which enacted a series of large-scale schemes from the beginning of the 1990s that give incentives to households to outsource housework. Based on Goode’s role strain theory and by using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study analyzed whether women who outsourced housework after the birth of their first child had a higher probability of having a second child. A survival analysis of 3990 person years demonstrates that, controlling for observables, the outsourcing of domestic labor is positively associated with a higher probability of a subsequent second birth in German women.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)401-417
Number of pages17
JournalPopulation Research and Policy Review
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


  • Fertility
  • Germany
  • Housework
  • Outsourcing
  • Role incompatibility
  • Role strain


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