Neurodegenerative disorders, brain injury, and the decline in cognitive function with aging are accompanied by a reduced capacity of cells in the brain to cope with oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we focused on the response to oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line. We monitored the viability of the cells in the presence of oxidative stress. Such stress was induced by hydrogen peroxide or by Sin1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine) that generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Both stressors caused significant cell death. Our results from the RNA-seq experiments show that SH-SY5Y cells treated with Sin1 for 24 h resulted in 94 differently expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), including many abundant ones. Among the abundant lncRNAs that were upregulated by exposing the cells to Sin1 were those implicated in redox homeostasis, energy metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., MALAT1, MIAT, GABPB1-AS1, NEAT1, MIAT, GABPB1-AS1, and HAND2-AS1). Another group of abundant lncRNAs that were significantly altered under oxidative stress included cancer-related SNHG family members. We tested the impact of ladostigil, a bifunctional reagent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on the lncRNA expression levels. Ladostigil was previously shown to enhance learning and memory in the brains of elderly rats. In SH-SY5Y cells, several lncRNAs involved in transcription regulation and the chromatin structure were significantly induced by ladostigil. We anticipate that these poorly studied lncRNAs may act as enhancers (eRNA), regulating transcription and splicing, and in competition for miRNA binding (ceRNA). We found that the induction of abundant lncRNAs, such as MALAT1, NEAT-1, MIAT, and SHNG12, by the Sin1 oxidative stress paradigm specifies only the undifferentiated cell state. We conclude that a global alteration in the lncRNA profiles upon stress in SH-SY5Y may shift cell homeostasis and is an attractive in vitro system to characterize drugs that impact the redox state of the cells and their viability.
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- Nrf2 signaling
- neurodegenerative disease