Mitochondria constitute a major source of reactive oxygen species and have been proposed to integrate the cellular responses to stress. In animals, it was shown that mitochondria can trigger apoptosis from diverse stimuli through the opening of MTP, which allows the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor and translocation of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Here, we analyzed the role of the mitochondria in the generation of oxidative burst and induction of programmed cell death in response to brief or continuous oxidative stress in Arabidopsis cells. Oxidative stress increased mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in amplification of H2O2 production, depletion of ATP, and cell death. The increased generation of H2O2 also caused the opening of the MTP and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c and cell death were prevented by a serine/cysteine protease inhibitor, Pefablock. However, addition of inhibitor only partially inhibited the H2O2 amplification and the MTP opening, suggesting that protease activation is a necessary step in the cell death pathway after mitochondrial damage.