Participation profile of children and youth, aged 6–14, with and without adhd, and the impact of environmental factors

Tair Shabat, Haya Fogel-Grinvald, Dana Anaby, Anat Golos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Children and youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may experience difficulties in participation, but few studies examine their participation and the environmental factors affecting participation. This study explored the participation and the environmental factors of children and youth, with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in the following three settings: home, school, and community. Materials and Methods: Parents of 65 participants aged 6–14 (M = 9.91, SD = 1.87) with and without ADHD completed the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) questionnaire, which evaluates participation and environmental factors, along with demographic and screening questionnaires. Results: The ADHD group (n = 31) scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD group (n = 34) in “frequency” at home, “involvement”, and overall environmental support in all settings, with parents expressing a greater desire to change their child’s home and community participation. For the ADHD group, a relationship was found between environmental support and involvement in all three settings. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated differences in the participation of children and youth with ADHD across different settings, compared to those without ADHD, and confirmed the effect of environmental factors on participation, especially involvement. It is essential to consider participation measures and environmental factors when designing interventions for children and youth with ADHD.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number537
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - 11 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • ADHD
  • Children and youth
  • Environment
  • Frequency
  • Involvement
  • Participation
  • Well-being


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