Pathways to defense metabolites and evading fruit bitterness in genus Solanum evolved through 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

Pablo D. Cárdenas, Prashant D. Sonawane*, Uwe Heinig, Adam Jozwiak, Sayantan Panda, Bekele Abebie, Yana Kazachkova, Margarita Pliner, Tamar Unger, Dalia Wolf, Itai Ofner, Ester Vilaprinyo, Sagit Meir, Olga Davydov, Amit Gal-on, Saul Burdman, Ashok Giri, Dani Zamir, Tali Scherf, Jedrzej SzymanskiIlana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations

Abstract

The genus Solanum comprises three food crops (potato, tomato, and eggplant), which are consumed on daily basis worldwide and also producers of notorious anti-nutritional steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). Hydroxylated SGAs (i.e. leptinines) serve as precursors for leptines that act as defenses against Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), an important pest of potato worldwide. However, SGA hydroxylating enzymes remain unknown. Here, we discover that 2-OXOGLUTARATE-DEPENDENT-DIOXYGENASE (2-ODD) enzymes catalyze SGA-hydroxylation across various Solanum species. In contrast to cultivated potato, Solanum chacoense, a widespread wild potato species, has evolved a 2-ODD enzyme leading to the formation of leptinines. Furthermore, we find a related 2-ODD in tomato that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the bitter α-tomatine to hydroxytomatine, the first committed step in the chemical shift towards downstream ripening-associated non-bitter SGAs (e.g. esculeoside A). This 2-ODD enzyme prevents bitterness in ripe tomato fruit consumed today which otherwise would remain unpleasant in taste and more toxic.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number5169
JournalNature Communications
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

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© 2019, The Author(s).

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