Background: Little is known about the prevalence of tobacco use in Uzbekistan, a country targeted intensively by the international tobacco industry. Methods: A national household survey elicited information about cigarette smoking and nasway use (a form of smokeless tobacco). Results: Prevalence of past-month smoking and nasway use among men (N=1795) was 19.6 and 22.3, respectively, and 1.6 and 0.5 among women (N=1831). Among men, smoking was independently associated with Uzbek ethnicity, urban residence, age and occupation; nasway use was associated with rural residence, age, being married and occupation. Conclusions: The smoking rate in Uzbekistan remains low relative to neighbouring countries, perhaps due to widespread use of cheaper nasway. These findings establish a baseline for future surveys and highlight the importance of smokeless tobacco in assessing overall consumption.