PGIR 20eid (SN 2020qmp): A Type IIP Supernova at 15.6 Mpc discovered by the Palomar Gattini-IR survey

G. P. Srinivasaragavan*, I. Sfaradi, J. Jencson, K. De, A. Horesh, M. M. Kasliwal, S. Tinyanont, M. Hankins, S. Schulze, M. C.B. Ashley, M. J. Graham, V. Karambelkar, R. Lau, A. A. Mahabal, A. M. Moore, E. O. Ofek, Y. Sharma, J. Sollerman, J. Soon, R. SoriaT. Travouillon, R. Walters

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims. We present a detailed analysis of SN 2020qmp, a nearby Type IIP core-collapse supernova (CCSN) that was discovered by the Palomar Gattini-IR survey in the galaxy UGC07125 (distance of ≈ 15.6 ± 4 Mpc). We illustrate how the multiwavelength study of this event helps our general understanding of stellar progenitors and circumstellar medium (CSM) interactions in CCSNe. We highlight the importance of near-infrared (NIR) surveys for detections of supernovae in dusty environments. Methods. We analyze data from observations in various bands: radio, NIR, optical, and X-rays. We use optical and NIR data for a spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric study of the supernova and to model its light curve (LC). We obtain an estimate of the zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) progenitor mass from the luminosity of the [OI] doublet lines (λλ6300 6364) normalized to the decay power of 56Co. We also independently estimate the explosion energy and ZAMS progenitor mass through hydrodynamical LC modeling. From radio and X-ray observations, we derive the mass-loss rate and microphysical parameters of the progenitor star, and we investigate possible deviations from energy equipartition of magnetic fields and electrons in a standard CSM interaction model. Finally, we simulate a sample of CCSNe with plausible distributions of brightness and extinction, within 40 Mpc, and test what fraction of the sample is detectable at peak light by NIR surveys versus optical surveys. Results. SN 2020qmp displays characteristic hydrogen lines in its optical spectra as well as a plateau in its optical LC, hallmarks of a Type IIP supernova. We do not detect linear polarization during the plateau phase, with a 3σ upper limit of 0.78%. Through hydrodynamical LC modeling and an analysis of its nebular spectra, we estimate a ZAMS progenitor mass of around 11.0 M· and an explosion energy of around 0.8 1051 erg. We find that the spectral energy distribution cannot be explained by a simple CSM interaction model, assuming a constant shock velocity and a steady mass-loss rate. In particular, the excess X-ray luminosity compared with the synchrotron radio luminosity suggests deviations from equipartition. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of NIR surveys over optical surveys for the detection of dust-obscured CCSNe in the local Universe. Specifically, our simulations show that the Wide-Field Infrared Transient Explorer will detect up to 14 more CCSNe (out of the 75 expected in its footprint) within 40 Mpc over five years than would an optical survey equivalent to the Zwicky Transient Facility. Conclusions. We have determined or constrained the main properties of SN 2020qmp and its progenitor, highlighting the value of multiwavelength follow-up observations of nearby CCSNe. We have shown that forthcoming NIR surveys will enable us to improve constraints on the local CCSN rate by detecting obscured supernovae that would be missed by optical searches.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberA138
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
StatePublished - 26 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements. Palomar Gattini-IR (PGIR) is generously funded by Caltech, Australian National University, the Mt Cuba Foundation, the Heising Simons Foundation, the Binational Science Foundation. PGIR is a collaborative project among Caltech, Australian National University, University of New South Wales, Columbia University and the Weizmann Institute of Science. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. M.M.K and E.O. acknowledge the US-Israel Bi-national Science Foundation Grant 2016227. M.M.K. and J.L.S. acknowledge the Heising-Simons foundation for support via a Scialog fellowship of the Research Corporation. M.M.K. and A.M.M. acknowledge the Mt Cuba foundation. J. Soon is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship. A.H. acknowledges support by the I-Core Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the Israel Science Foundation, and support by ISF grant 647/18.This research was supported by Grant No. 2018154 from the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF). We thank the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for conducting the radio observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Some of the data presented here were obtained with the Visiting Astronomer facility at the Infrared Telescope Facility,

Funding Information:
which is operated by the University of Hawaii under contract 80HQTR19D0030 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1106171. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. We thank Yize Dong for his help with the hydrodynamical LC modeling. We thank David Kaplan for his helpful comments before submission to the journal.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Authors


  • Shock waves
  • Supernovae: individual: SN2020qmp


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