Treated wastewater is an important source of water for irrigation. As a result, irrigated crops are chronically exposed to wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals, such as the anticonvulsant drug lamotrigine. Lamotrigine is known to be taken up by plants, but its plant-derived metabolites and their distribution in different plant organs are unknown. This study aimed to detect and identify metabolites of lamotrigine in cucumber plants grown for 35 days in a hydroponic solution by using LC-MS/MS (Orbitrap) analysis. Our data showed that 96% of the lamotrigine taken up was metabolized. Sixteen metabolites possessing a lamotrigine core structure were detected. Reference standards confirmed two; five were tentatively identified, and nine molecular formulas were assigned. The data suggest that lamotrigine is metabolized via N-carbamylation, N-glucosidation, N-alkylation, N-formylation, N-oxidation, and amidine hydrolysis. The metabolites LTG-N2-oxide, M284, M312, and M370 were most likely produced in the roots and were translocated to the leaves. Metabolites M272, M312, M314, M354, M368, M370, and M418 were dominant in leaves. Only a few metabolites were detected in the fruits. With an increasing exposure time, lamotrigine leaf concentrations decreased because of continuous metabolism. Our data showed that the metabolism of lamotrigine in a plant is fast and that a majority of metabolites are concentrated in the roots and leaves.
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- chemical structure