Type of mixing at cloud edges is often determined by means of mixing diagrams showing the dependence of normalized cube of the mean volume radius on the dilution level. The mixing diagrams correspond to the final equilibrium state of mixing between two air volumes. While interpreting in situ measurements, scattering diagrams are plotted in which normalized droplet concentration is used instead of dilution level. Utilization of such scattering diagrams for interpretation of in situ observations faces significant difficulties and often leads to misinterpretation of the mixing process and to uncertain conclusions concerning the mixing type. In this study we analyze the scattering diagrams obtained by means of a Lagrangian-Eulerian model of a stratocumulus cloud. The model consists of 2,000 interacting Largangian parcels which mix with their neighbors during their motion in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the diagram, each parcel is denoted by a point. Changes of microphysical parameters of the parcel are represented by movements of the point in the scattering diagram. The method of plotting the scattering diagrams using the model is in many aspects similar to that used in in situ measurements. It is shown that a scattering diagram shows snapshots of a transient mixing process. The location of points in the scattering diagrams reflects largely the history and the origin of air parcels. Location of points on scattering diagram characterizes intensity of entrainment, and different parameters of droplet size distributions (DSDs) like concentration, mean volume (or effective) radius, and DSD width.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Details of the LEM model are presented in the supporting information. This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant 1393/14) and the Office of Science (BER) of the U.S. Department of Energy (awards DE SC0006788 and DE-FOA-0001638).
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- Lagrangian-Eulerian model of Sc
- mixing diagrams
- scattering diagrams
- turbulent mixing in clouds