Background: Pre- and perinatal events may be associated with an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. We aimed to investigate the role of pre- and perinatal factors as potential risk factors for the development of IBD in a population with a follow-up of 50 years. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study, reporting IBD incidence among individuals born in 1964-76, for whom pre- and perinatal exposures were reported as part of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study [JPS], by linking them to the database of the epidemiology group of the Israeli IBD Research Nucleus [epi-IIRN], including all IBD patients in Israel since 2005 and their matched controls. Results: We identified 2789 individuals within the epi-IIRN cohort who were also included in the JPS cohort [n = 90 079]: 746 IBD patients (405 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 341 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) and 2043 non-IBD controls. Those with a 'Non-western' family origin had decreased odds of developing CD and UC. High socioeconomic status was associated with CD but not UC. Low birth weight [≤2500 g] occurred less frequently in IBD cases compared to controls, especially in UC patients, showing a protective effect. Being the first born was associated with CD, and having older siblings lowered the odds of developing CD, decreasing 7% with each additional sibling. Smoking and breastfeeding data were available for a subset of individuals, but neither was associated with IBD development. Conclusion: This population-based study identifies several pre- and perinatal variables as predictors of IBD development. This information may be helpful to facilitate implementation of early diagnosis interventions and family follow-up protocols.
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© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. All rights reserved.
- Prenatal factors
- epidemiology of IBD
- perinatal factors