The electrochemical formation and characterization of decanoic, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid self-assembled monolayers on a native oxide surface of 316L stainless steel have been studied. This work describes a new approach to surface modification of stainless steel in which the self-assembly of n-alkanoic acids is facilitated by applying a potential to the stainless steel in an organic electrolyte solution. While decanoic acid forms a disorganized monolayer as a result of sweeping the potential in an acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 mM of the respective acid, longer acids, that is, myristic and palmitic acids, form highly ordered closed-packed monolayers. This electrochemical approach results in highly reproducible monolayers that are deposited within a shorter time than the traditional assembly process. The monolayers were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, double-layer capacity (ac voltammetry), contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and external reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The utilization and implications of this modification technique are discussed.