Preparation and conformation of monohalotetrahydroxycalix[5]arenes

Joel M. Van Gelder, Oleg Aleksiuk, Silvio E. Biali*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The intraannular introduction of a halogen into a calixarene skeleton is described. Monoaminotetrahydroxy-p-tert-butylcalix[5]arene (2b) was diazotized by treatment with isoamyl nitrite/HCl/EtOH. Thermal dediazoniation of the salt in chloroform yielded monochlorotetrahydroxy-p-tert-butylcalix-[5]arene (5a) and the xanthenocalix[5]arene 6. These products result from the capture of an intermediate phenyl cation derivative by chloride ion or intramolecularly, by a neighboring phenol ring. The product ratio 6:5a was not affected by the addition of excess external chloride, suggesting that the reacting intermediate exists as an ion pair. The dediazoniation reaction in the presence of bromide and iodide ions afforded the corresponding halocalixarenes 5b and 5c, while in the presence of a fluoride ion the calixindazole 8 was obtained. X-ray diffraction indicates that 5b exists in a distorted cone conformation (cone-in) in which the extraannular edge of the halophenyl ring is tilted toward the cavity center. The halocalixarenes undergo a cone-to-cone inversion process with a barrier in the 11.3-12.5 kcal mol-1 range in CDCl3. The barrier height is a function of the size of the halo substituent. Xanthenocalix[5]arene 6 crystallizes with three ethanol solvent molecules and exists in a cone-like conformation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)8419-8424
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Issue number24
StatePublished - 29 Nov 1996


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