Though initially discovered as a proto-oncogene in virally induced mouse mammary tumors, FGF3 is primarily active in prenatal stages, where it is found at various sites at specific times. FGF3 is crucial during development, as its roles include tail formation, inner ear development and hindbrain induction and patterning. FGF3 expression and function are highly conserved in vertebrates, while it also interacts with other FGFs in various developmental processes. Intriguingly, while it is classified as a classical paracrine signaling factor, murine FGF3 was uniquely found to also act in an intracrine manner, depending on alternative translation initiation sites. Corresponding with its conserved role in inner ear morphogenesis, mutations in FGF3 in humans are associated with LAMM syndrome, a disorder that include hearing loss and inner ear malformations. While recent studies indicate of some FGF3 presence in post-natal stages, emerging evidences of its upregulation in various human tumors and cariogenic processes in mouse models, highlights the importance of its close regulation in adult tissues. Altogether, the broad and dynamic expression pattern and regulation of FGF3 in embryonic and adult tissues together with its link to congenital malformations and cancer, calls for further discoveries of its diverse roles in health and disease.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 International Society of Differentiation
- Embryonic development
- Hindbrain development
- Otic development