Potassium-ion batteries are attracting considerable attention as a viable type of high voltage battery. Among available anode materials, composites containing Sb2S3are some of the most interesting high capacity candidates. A nanostructured Sb2S3-reduced graphene oxide composite anode material is evaluated in this study and compared with a structurally similar SnS2-reduced graphene oxide material reported previously by this team. The behaviour of the Sb2S3-based electrodes is assessed in both 1 M KPF6in ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate and 1 M KPF6in 1,2-dimethoxyethane electrolytes. Depotassiation capacities in excess of 650 mA h g−1are recorded for the composite electrodes, superior not only to SnS2-based electrodes but also to all previously reported Sb2S3-containing electrode materials for potassium-ion batteries. In order to establish insights into the reaction mechanism of the Sb2S3phase with potassium, post-cycling X-ray diffraction andin situtransmission electron microscopy are utilised. The recorded data suggest the presence of antimony alloys and potassium polysulphides as reaction products and intermediates; a possible conversion-alloying reaction mechanism is discussed. The results indicate that a capacity higher than previously believed is achievable in the Sb2S3active component of potassium-ion battery electrodes.
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© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2020.