Profiling Heparan Sulfate-Heavy Metal Ions Interaction Using Electrochemical Techniques

Ariel Shitrit, Sandhya Mardhekar, Israel Alshanski, Prashant Jain, Rakesh Raigawali, Chethan D. Shanthamurthy, Raghavendra Kikkeri*, Shlomo Yitzchaik*, Mattan Hurevich*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans provides extracellular matrix defense against heavy metals cytotoxicity. Identifying the precise glycan sequences that bind a particular heavy metal ion is a key for understanding those interactions. Here, electrochemical and surface characterization techniques were used to elucidate the relation between the glycans structural motifs, uronic acid stereochemistry, and sulfation regiochemistry to heavy metal ions binding. A divergent strategy was employed to access a small library of structurally well-defined tetrasaccharides analogs with different sulfation patterns and uronic acid compositions. These tetrasaccharides were electrochemically grafted onto glassy carbon electrodes and their response to heavy metal ions was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Key differences in the binding of Hg(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) were associated with a combination of the uronic acid type and the sulfation pattern.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numbere202202193
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number55
StatePublished - 4 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • carbohydrates
  • electrochemistry
  • heavy metal ions
  • sulfation pattern
  • surface chemistry • uronic acid


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