Beneficial microorganisms need to overcome the plant defense system to establish on or within plant tissues. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can manipulate a plant's immunity pathways, first by suppressing and hiding to establish on the host and then by inducing resistance to protect the plant. In the current study, we demonstrated that although Pseudozyma aphidis can activate microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-associated genes, it does not activate MAMP-triggered callose deposition and can, moreover, suppress such deposition triggered by Flg22 or chitin. While MAMPassociated gene activation by P. aphidis was not dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene signaling, suppression of MAMP-triggered callose deposition required the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling factors JAR1-1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 yet did not rely on EIN2, NPR1, or the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2. We also demonstrated the ability of P. aphidis, known to be an epiphytic yeast-like organism, to penetrate the stomata and establish within plant tissues, as do endophytes. These results thus demonstrate the potential of P. aphidis to suppress MAMP-elicited defenses in order to establish on and within host plant tissues.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 Alster et al.
- Pseudozyma aphidis
- callose deposition