Quantum circuits with mixed states

Dorit Aharonov*, Alexei Kitaev, Noam Nisan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

295 Scopus citations


The formal model of quantum circuits is generalized to a model in which the state can be a general quantum state and the gates can be general quantum operations. The new model is shown to be equivalent in computational power to standard models. The main result is a solution for the subroutine problem. A natural notion of using subroutines is defined, and the failure of the general subroutines to strengthen the models is shown.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)20-30
Number of pages11
JournalConference Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
StatePublished - 1998
EventProceedings of the 1998 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing - Dallas, TX, USA
Duration: 23 May 199826 May 1998


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