A pair-density-wave state has been suggested to exist in underdoped cuprate superconductors, with some supporting experimental evidence emerging over the past few years from scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Several studies have also linked the observed quantum oscillations in these systems to a reconstruction of the Fermi surface by a pair-density wave. Here, we show, using semiclassical analysis and numerical calculations, that a Fermi pocket created by first-order scattering from a pair-density wave cannot induce such oscillations. In contrast, pockets resulting from second-order scattering can cause oscillations. We consider the effects of a finite pair-density-wave correlation length on the signal, and demonstrate that it is only weakly sensitive to disorder in the form of π-phase slips. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of the cuprates and show that a bidirectional pair-density wave may produce observed oscillation frequencies.
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