## Abstract

We study the problem of interpolating a noisy Fourier-sparse signal in the time duration [0, T] from noisy samples in the same range, where the ground truth signal can be any k-Fourier-sparse signal with band-limit [-F, F]. Our main result is an efficient Fourier Interpolation algorithm that improves the previous best algorithm by [Chen, Kane, Price, and Song, FOCS 2016] in the following three aspects:•The sample complexity is improved from õ(k51) to õ(k4).•The time complexity is improved from õ(k10 Ω+40) to õ(k4 Ω).•The output sparsity is improved from õ(k10) to õ(k4). Here, Ω denotes the exponent of fast matrix multiplication. The state-of-the-art sample complexity of this problem is ∼ k4, but was only known to be achieved by an exponential-time algorithm. Our algorithm uses the same number of samples but has a polynomial runtime, laying the groundwork for an efficient Fourier Interpolation algorithm.The centerpiece of our algorithm is a new spectral analysis tool-the Signal Equivalent Method-which utilizes the structure of Fourier signals to establish nearly-optimal energy properties, and is the key for efficient and accurate frequency estimation. We use this method, along with a new sufficient condition for frequency recovery (a new high SNR band condition), to design a cheap algorithm for estimating 'significant' frequencies within a narrow range. Together with a signal estimation algorithm, we obtain a new Fourier Interpolation algorithm for reconstructing the ground-truth signal.

Original language | American English |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 64th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2023 |

Publisher | IEEE Computer Society |

Pages | 1414-1425 |

Number of pages | 12 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9798350318944 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2023 |

Event | 64th IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2023 - Santa Cruz, United States Duration: 6 Nov 2023 → 9 Nov 2023 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS |
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ISSN (Print) | 0272-5428 |

### Conference

Conference | 64th IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2023 |
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Country/Territory | United States |

City | Santa Cruz |

Period | 6/11/23 → 9/11/23 |

### Bibliographical note

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