Raloxifene attenuates Gas6 and apoptosis in experimental aortic valve disease in renal failure

Mony Shuvy*, Suzan Abedat, Ronen Beeri, Michael Valitsky, Sameh Daher, Miriam Kott-Gutkowski, Anca Gal-Moscovici, Jacob Sosna, Nalini M. Rajamannan, Chaim Lotan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Renal failure is associated with aortic valve calcification. Using our rat model of uremiainduced reversible aortic valve calcification, we assessed the role of apoptosis and survival pathways in that disease. We also explored the effects of raloxifene, an estrogen receptor modulator, on valvular calcification. Gene array analysis was performed in aortic valves obtained from three groups of rats (n = 7 rats/group): calcified valves obtained from rats fed with uremic diet, valves after calcification resolution following diet cessation, and control. In addition, four groups of rats (n = 10 rats/group) were used to evaluate the effect of raloxifene in aortic valve calcification: three groups as mentioned above and a fourth group fed with the uremic diet that also received daily raloxifene. Evaluation included imaging, histology, and antigen expression analysis. Gene array results showed that the majority of the altered expressed genes were in diet group valves. Most apoptosisrelated genes were changed in a proapoptotic direction in calcified valves. Apoptosis and decreases in several survival pathways were confirmed in calcified valves. Resolution of aortic valve calcification was accompanied by decreased apoptosis and upregulation of survival pathways. Imaging and histology demonstrated that raloxifene significantly decreased aortic valve calcification. In conclusion, downregulation of several survival pathways and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of aortic valve calcification. The beneficial effect of raloxifene in valve calcification is related to apoptosis modulation. This novel observation is important for developing remedies for aortic valve calcification in patients with renal failure.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)H1829-H1840
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Growth arrest-specific 6
  • Uremia


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