Real-Time Measurement of Tourists’ Objective and Subjective Emotions in Time and Space

Noam Shoval*, Yonatan Schvimer, Maya Tamir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

117 Scopus citations


The examination of tourists’ experiences is an essential subject in tourism scholarship. This study presents novel methods by which spatio-temporal data can be combined with physiological measures of emotion and semantic contextual information in order to obtain a comprehensive and integrative understanding of tourists’ experience in time and space. Four data collection techniques were combined and applied to a sample of 68 tourists in Jerusalem: high-resolution locational data, real-time surveying techniques using the experience sampling method, physiological measures of emotion (electrodermal activity), and traditional surveying techniques. We present methods for using these techniques in exploring data on the individual level, comparing pairs of individuals, and examining a sample, providing insight both on the individual’s personal experience and, more broadly, on the emotional characteristics of locations and tourist attractions in a city. Theoretical and methodological implications as well as the limitations of these techniques are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3-16
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 832/03).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.


  • mobile sensing
  • objective
  • physiological sensors
  • real-time surveys
  • smartphone
  • subjective
  • tracking technologies


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