Regulation of insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis by succinate

Veronique Attali, Marcela Parnes, Yafa Ariav, Erol Cerasi, Nurit Kaiser, Gil Leibowitz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Succinate stimulates insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis. We studied the effects of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-modulating pathways on glucose- and succinate-stimulated insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis in the rat and the insulin-resistant Psammomys obesus. Disruption of the anaplerotic pyruvate/malate shuttle by phenylacetic acid inhibited glucose- and succinate-stimulated insulin secretion and succinate-stimulated proinsulin biosynthesis in both species. In contrast, phenylacetic acid failed to inhibit glucose-stimulated proinsulin biosynthesis in P. obesus islets. Inhibition of the NADPH-consuming enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or with NG-monomethyl-L-arginineG doubled succinate-stimulated insulin secretion in rat islets, suggesting that succinate- and nNOS-derived signals interact to regulate insulin secretion. In contrast, nNOS inhibition had no effect on succinate-stimulated proinsulin biosynthesis in both species. In P. obesus islets, insulin secretion was not stimulated by succinate in the absence of glucose, whereas proinsulin biosynthesis was increased 5-fold. Conversely, under stimulating glucose levels, succinate doubled insulin secretion, indicating glucose-dependence. Pyruvate ester and inhibition of nNOS partially mimicked the permissive effect of glucose on succinate-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting that anaplerosis-derived signals render the β-cells responsive to succinate. We conclude that β-cell anaplerosis via pyruvate carboxylase is important for glucose- and succinate-stimulated insulin secretion and for succinate-stimulated proinsulin biosynthesis. In P. obesus, pyruvate/malate shuttle dependent and independent pathways that regulate proinsulin biosynthesis coexist; the latter can maintain fuel stimulated biosynthetic activity when the succinate-dependent pathway is inhibited. nNOS signaling is a negative regulator of insulin secretion, but not of proinsulin biosynthesis.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5110-5118
Number of pages9
JournalEndocrinology
Volume147
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

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