Regulation of mammalian defensin expression by Toll-like receptor-dependent and independent signalling pathways

Oren Froy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

143 Scopus citations

Abstract

The immune system consists of innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune system confers non-specific protection against a large number of pathogens, hence, serving as the first line of defence. The innate immune system utilizes Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to recognize and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Binding of PAMPs leads to TLR activation, which, in turn, initiates MAPK- or NF-κB-dependent cascades that culminate in a proinflammatory response. This response involves the secretion of cytokines, chemokines and broad-spectrum antibacterial substances, such as defensins. Increased defensin synthesis is also mediated by the activation of receptors other than TLRs, such as NOD2, IL-17R and PAR-2. This review summarizes the recently characterized signalling pathways leading to increased defensin synthesis as well as the pathway by which defensins activate TLRs on immature dendritic and memory T cells. Thus, not only do defensins eliminate pathogens, but they also recruit the adaptive immune system in instances of infection and/or inflammation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1387-1397
Number of pages11
JournalCellular Microbiology
Volume7
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2005

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