Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

Michel Roth*, Jenia Tiagunov, Evgeniy Dul'kin, Evgeny Mojaev

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle “butterfly wing” BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10–15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2− ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 µm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)753-757
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier B.V.


  • A1. Crystal structure
  • A1. Phase transitions
  • A2. Growth from high-temperature solutions
  • B1. Perovskites
  • B2. Ferroelectric materials
  • B2. Relaxor-based


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