Renal dialysis and long-term treatment of a dog with kidney disease associated with canine leishmaniosis

Gad Baneth*, Gilad Segev, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Hila Chen, Sharon Kuzi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Renal disease is considered the main cause of natural mortality in dogs with canine leishmaniosis. The pathological mechanisms associated with kidney injury in canine leishmaniosis include immune complex glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and occasionally renal amyloidosis. Proteinuria is a frequent finding in canine leishmaniosis and its quantification by the urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPC) is an important parameter in the staging of canine lesihmaniosis as presented by the LeishVet group. Results: A 4.5 year-old spayed female Belgian Malinois dog was presented to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching hospital with epistaxis and rhinitis and diagnosed also with proteinuria and acute kidney injury (AKI IRIS grade V) associated with canine leishmaniosis that developed to LeishVet stage III with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after stabilization. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included azotemia with a peak creatinine concentration of 7.76 mg/dl (reference interval, 0.3-1.2 ng/dl), hypoalbuminemia (1.76 g/dl, reference interval 3-4.4 g/dl), hyperglobulinemia (4.54 g/dl, reference interval 1.8-3.9 g/dl) and proteinuria (urine protein/creatinine ratio 15.6, normal < 0.2). Serology by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leishmania infantum was positive with high antibody levels. The dog was hospitalized and treated with intermittent hemodialysis, feeding through an esophageal feeding tube, medical treatment for protein losing nephropathy and antileishmanial treatment with allopurinol. Kidney function gradually improved and the dog's creatinine levels and proteinuria decreased until complete normalization two years after the acute insult. However, rhinitis and sneezing persisted and although the anti-leishmanial antibodies decreased over time, the dog remains constantly seropositive. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of hemodialysis management of AKI associated with canine leishmaniosis. Hemodialysis was imperative in stabilizing the dog's renal disease and controlling its azotemia. It demostrates that hemodialysis can be beneficial in the management of acute deterioration of kidney disease in canine leishmaniosis.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number151
JournalParasites and Vectors
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Mar 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Canine leishmaniosis
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Epistaxis
  • Hemodialysis

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