Two cases of secondary, inappropriate polycythaemia caused by renal adenocarcinoma in domestic shorthair cats, are described. The cats were 9 and 12 years old and both were presented because of generalised seizures presumably due to hyperviscosity. Both cats had a markedly increased haematocrit (0.770 and 0.632 l/l) and thrombocytosis (744 × 109/l and 926 × 109/l). An abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the cranial pole of one kidney in both cats. Serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration was within the reference interval (RI) in both cats but was inappropriately high considering the markedly increased haematocrit. The cats were initially stabilised and managed by multiple phlebotomies and intravenous fluid therapy and underwent nephrectomy of the affected kidney later on. Both the polycythaemia and thrombocytosis resolved following surgery. Postoperative serum EPO concentration, measured in one cat, decreased markedly. Histopathology of the affected kidneys confirmed a diagnosis of renal adenocarcinoma. Both cats were stable for an 8-month follow-up period; however, one cat had developed a stable chronic kidney disease (CKD), while the other was represented 8 months postoperatively due to dyspnoea, and had radiographic evidence of lung metastasis, presumably because of the spread of the original renal tumour and was euthanased. Initial stabilisation of polycythaemic cats should include multiple phlebotomies. Nephrectomy should be considered in cats with secondary, inappropriate, renal adenocarcinoma-related polycythaemia when only one kidney is affected by the tumour, and provided that the other kidney's function is satisfactory. Nephrectomy should be expected to resolve the polycythaemia and lead to normalisation of serum EPO concentration.