One of the challenges for metasurface research is upscaling. The conventional methods for fabrication of metasurfaces, such as electron-beam or focused ion beam lithography, are not scalable. The use of ultraviolet steppers or nanoimprinting still requires large-size masks or stamps, which are costly and challenging in further handling. This work demonstrates a cost-effective and lithography-free method for printing optical metasurfaces. It is based on resonant absorption of laser light in an optical cavity formed by a multilayer structure of ultrathin metal and dielectric coatings. A nearly perfect light absorption is obtained via interferometric control of absorption and operating around a critical coupling condition. Controlled by the laser power, the surface undergoes a structural transition from random, semiperiodic, and periodic to amorphous patterns with nanoscale precision. The reliability, upscaling, and subwavelength resolution of this approach are demonstrated by realizing metasurfaces for structural colors, optical holograms, and diffractive optical elements.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by the Villum Fond through the Villum Experiment Project (No. 17400) and The Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 21DZ1101500). X.Z. also acknowledges the support from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, the Overseas Expertise Introduction Project for Discipline Innovation (the 111 Project, Code B12024), the Zijiang Excellent Young Scholar, and the National Oversea High-level Youth Talent Plan.
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- Optical cavity
- Optical metasurface
- Resonant laser printing
- Structural color