Revised chronology of the ICDP Dead Sea deep drill core relates drier-wetter-drier climate cycles to insolation over the past 220 kyr

Steven L. Goldstein, Yael Kiro, Adi Torfstein, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Jessica Tierney, Mordechai Stein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project drilled 456 meters into the deepest floor of the Dead Sea and recovered a record of the past ∼220 kyr of the Levant hydroclimate history, that is, Marine Isotope Stages 1–7, including the last three interglacials and the last two glacials. We present an updated chronology of the core from DSDDP Hole 5017-1-A, from the Dead Sea's deepest basin, that refines our previous chronology (Torfstein et al. 2015) based on new information. The updated chronology uses the following approaches: (1) radiocarbon ages of Kitagawa et al. (2017); (2) correlation of specific layers in the core with U–Th-dated sediments on the Dead Sea margin, particularly during the interval of glacial Lake Lisan (MIS 2,3,4); (3) tuning of the δ18O data of DSDDP core aragonite to the U–Th dated oxygen isotopes of regional cave speleothems; and (4) tuning of the DSDDP aragonite δ18O data to summer insolation curves when the cave δ18O chronology is less clear. The updated chronology reveals a strong relationship between the sedimentary facies comprising the core and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation variations. It shows that sequences of sediments marking drier/wetter/drier climate conditions in the lake's watershed (e.g., salt/muds/salt, respectively) appear across the flank/peak/flank segments of several summer insolation peaks. In particular, the transition from drier to wetter sedimentary facies during mid-latitude insolation peaks coincides with the intervals of sapropel conditions in the Mediterranean, reflecting enhanced Nile flow due to intense African monsoonal conditions, and marking the impact of the tropical precession cycles on Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate. This pattern was lost during MIS 2,3,4, when mostly sequences of primary aragonite are punctuated by gypsum precipitation during Heinrich events, marking the strong impact of the North Atlantic on the last glacial Levant hydroclimate.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number106460
JournalQuaternary Science Reviews
Volume244
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study benefited from discussions with Boaz Lazar of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Yochanan Kushnir of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The study was supported by the supported by an Excellence Center grant of the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) #1736/11 to MS, and the Storke Endowment of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences of Columbia University. The Dead Sea drilling was partly supported by US National Science Foundation (NSF) grant EAR-11-15312 to SG. The paper benefited the thorough reviews and comments of Neil Roberts and two anonymous reviewers. This paper is dedicated to the late Prof. Wally Broecker of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University; as among his many great scientific accomplishments, he was a pioneer in the chronological studies of terminal lakes, including the earliest works on dating of glacial Lake Lisan. This is LDEO contribution #8433.

Funding Information:
This study benefited from discussions with Boaz Lazar of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Yochanan Kushnir of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The study was supported by the supported by an Excellence Center grant of the Israel Science Foundation ( ISF ) # 1736/11 to MS, and the Storke Endowment of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences of Columbia University . The Dead Sea drilling was partly supported by US National Science Foundation ( NSF ) grant EAR-11-15312 to SG. The paper benefited the thorough reviews and comments of Neil Roberts and two anonymous reviewers. This paper is dedicated to the late Prof. Wally Broecker of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University; as among his many great scientific accomplishments, he was a pioneer in the chronological studies of terminal lakes, including the earliest works on dating of glacial Lake Lisan. This is LDEO contribution #8433.

Funding Information:
The Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP, Stein et al., 2011 ; Neugebauer et al., 2014 ), funded by the ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and several national science foundations, took place during autumn-winter 2010–11. The purpose was to recover a continuous sedimentary record of the late Quaternary lakes, and to fill in the time gaps and thereby knowledge of the climate and tectonics in the Levant region. At the time the Dead Sea lake level was 524 m below mean sea level (mbmsl). The priority drilling Site 5017–1 was at a water depth of 297 m (821 mbmsl), close to the deepest floor of the Dead Sea Basin ( Fig. 1 ). The longest core sequence was recovered from Hole 5017-1-A, reaching 456 m below the lake floor (mblf), and 1177 mbmsl. Two coring Sites 5017–2 and 5017–3 were located close to the shoreline in a shallow bay off Ein Gedi Spa ( Fig. 1 , descriptions are in Coianiz et al., 2019a , b ). In total, ∼720 m of sediment core were recovered from the three Sites (summarized in Neugebauer et al., 2014 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • Chronology
  • Eastern Mediterranean
  • Hydroclimate
  • ICDP drilling
  • Insolation
  • Levant
  • Paleoclimatology
  • Quaternary
  • Radiocarbon
  • Sapropels
  • U–Th dating

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