Robotic assisted spinal surgery - From concept to clinical practice

M. Shoham*, I. H. Lieberman, E. C. Benzel, D. Togawa, E. Zehavi, B. Zilberstein, M. Roffman, A. Bruskin, A. Fridlander, L. Joskowicz, S. Brink-Danan, N. Knoller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


After several years of product development, animal trials and human cadaver testing, the SpineAssist®-a miniature bone-mounted robotic system-has recently entered clinical use. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the only available image-based mechanical guidance system that enables pedicle screw insertion with an overall accuracy in the range of 1 mm in both open and minimally invasive procedures. In this paper, we describe the development and clinical trial process that has brought the SpineAssist to its current state, with an emphasis on the various difficulties encountered along the way and the corresponding solutions. All aspects of product development are discussed, including mechanical design, CT-to-fluoroscopy image registration, and surgical techniques. Finally, we describe a series of preclinical trials with human cadavers, as well as clinical use, which verify the system's accuracy and efficacy.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)105-115
Number of pages11
JournalComputer Aided Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007


  • Image-based control
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Registration
  • Spinal procedure
  • Surgical robot


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