Safraless compositional synthesis

Orna Kupferman*, Nir Piterman, Moshe Y. Vardi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

70 Scopus citations


In automated synthesis, we transform a specification into a system that is guaranteed to satisfy the specification. In spite of the rich theory developed for system synthesis, little of this theory has been reduced to practice. This is in contrast with model-checking theory, which has led to industrial development and use of formal verification tools. We see two main reasons for the lack of practical impact of synthesis. The first is algorithmic: synthesis involves determinization of automata on infinite words, and a solution of parity games with highly complex state spaces; both problems have been notoriously resistant to efficient implementation. The second is methodological: current theory of synthesis assumes a single comprehensive specification. In practice, however, the specification is composed of a set of properties, which is typically evolving - properties may be added, deleted, or modified. In this work we address both issues. We extend the Safraless synthesis algorithm of Kupferman and Vardi so that it handles LTL formulas by translating them to nondeterministic generalized Büchi automata. This leads to an exponential improvement in the complexity of the algorithm. Technically, our algorithm reduces the synthesis problem to the emptiness problem of a nondeterministic Buchi tree automaton A. The generation of A avoids determinization, avoids the parity acceptance condition, and is based on an analysis of runs of universal generalized co-Büchi tree automata. The clean and simple structure of A enables optimizations and a symbolic implementation. In addition, it makes it possible to use information gathered during the synthesis process of properties in the process of synthesizing their conjunction.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationComputer Aided Verification - 18th International Conference, CAV 2006, Proceedings
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)354037406X, 9783540374060
StatePublished - 2006
Event18th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification, CAV 2006 - Seattle, WA, United States
Duration: 17 Aug 200620 Aug 2006

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume4144 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference18th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification, CAV 2006
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySeattle, WA


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