Screening Mammography for Males With Elevated Breast Cancer Risk, Mutation Carriers, and Gynecomastia

Ahuva Grubstein*, Marva Dahan, Wael Jomar, Tal Friehmann, Shlomit Tamir, Tzippy Shochat, Eli Atar, Tanir M. Allweis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The recommendations for annual mammography for male carriers with gynecomastia are controversial. This study investigated the potential link between gynecomastia and breast cancer in male carriers. Patients and Methods: The database of a tertiary medical center was retrospectively searched for all male patients who underwent at least 1 digital mammography study from 2016 to 2023. Known carriers of a pathogenic variant in a high-risk breast-cancer gene were identified. Patients were stratified by carrier status, diagnosis of breast cancer, and diagnosis of gynecomastia. Data on demographics, hormone profile, and pathology results were compared. Results: The cohort included 446 men of whom 82 were known carriers. Gynecomastia was diagnosed by mammography in 251 patients: 239/364 noncarriers (66%) and 12/82 carriers (15%) (P < .0001). Breast cancer was found in 21/364 noncarriers (6%) and 6/82 carriers (7%) (P < .6), and in 10/251 patients with gynecomastia (4%) and 17/193 (9%) without gynecomastia (P < .05). Among patients without gynecomastia, the number of breast cancer cases was similar in carriers and noncarriers (P = .3). Among patients with gynecomastia, the rate of breast cancer was higher in carriers (P < .08). On logistic regression analysis, the effect of gynecomastia on carriers was significant (P = .02). The odds ratio for a breast cancer diagnosis was 5.8 in the presence of gynecomastia (95% CI, 1.1-31, P < .04) and 0.52 in the absence of gynecomastia (95% CI, 0.2-1.7, P < .3). Conclusion: Gynecomastia may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in carriers. Larger studies are needed to determine whether and when to screen male carriers.

Original languageAmerican English
JournalClinical Breast Cancer
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024


  • BRCA1
  • BRCA2
  • Mammography
  • Screening


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