Seeing "ghost" planes in stereo vision

Daphna Weinshall*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


I have studied particular ambiguous random dot stereograms where multiple matches (that are equally possible) are available at each point. The human visual system resolves these ambiguities in two qualitatively different ways. In some cases a few transparent surfaces are perceived corresponding to all the ambiguous matches. In other cases a single dominant opaque surface is perceived. The conditions under which each behavior occurs are described. Additional experiments, designed to explore whether a number of modified stereo matching algorithms can predict human perception, are described, and their theoretical implications are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1731-1748
Number of pages18
JournalVision Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgementst-hI ankS . Kirkpatrick, G. Mitch&m, T. Poggio and M. Fahle for very helpful commentsa nd advice.I also thankS . Barash,H . Biltthoff,N . Cornelius,S . Edelman,J . McFarland, M. Ross, A. ShashuaB, . Snowden and L. Topa for their help, and the anonymousr eferees for many useful comments. This research was done partly in the MIT AI Laboratory. It was supportedb y a Fairchild postdoctoralf ellowship, and in part by grants from the office of Naval Research (NOOOt4-88-k-0164) from the National scienceF oundation (IRI-8719394a nd lRI-8657824),a nd a gift from the James S. McDonnell Foundation to Professor Ellen Hildreth.


  • Binocular vision
  • Disparity gradient
  • Double nail illusion
  • Matching
  • Multiple matching
  • Smoothness
  • Uniqueness


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