Selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, bony orbit anatomy, and ocular histology in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor)

Arianne P. Oriá*, Deusdete C. Gomes Junior, Alberto Vinícius D. Oliveira, Victor P. Curvelo, Alessandra Estrela-Lima, Melissa H. Pinna, Íris D.S. Meneses, Emanoel F.M. Filho, Ron Ofri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for diagnostic ophthalmic tests in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) as well as to describe the most relevant features of the bony orbital anatomy and ocular histology. Method: Twenty healthy animals, free living in a forest reserve, that were captured for clinical evaluation as part of a health survey were evaluated. Schirmer tear test-1 (STT1), conjunctival microbiota, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival cytology, anatomy of the bony orbit, and ocular histology were studied. Results: Mean ± SD STT1 and IOP values were 18.8 ± 4.7 mm and 11.4 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly higher in adult (4-8 years) animals (P = 0.04). Bacterial growth was present in 100% of the samples, with a prevalence for Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. The conjunctival cytology revealed predominance of columnar epithelial cells with mild pigmentation. The sambar deer orbit is completely encompassed by bone. The ocular histology was very similar to most mammalians. Conclusions: The findings in this study will be useful in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in Rusa unicolor.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)125-131
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary Ophthalmology
Issue numbers1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


  • Bacterial flora
  • Conjunctival cytology
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Ocular histology
  • Orbit
  • Schirmer tear test


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