We have developed a selective electrode for chromium-(VI), based on a self-assembled monolayer of 4-(mercapto-n-alkyl)pyridinium on gold surfaces, which exhibits unique speciation capabilities. Cr(VI) levels as low as 1 parts per trillion can be detected using a 4-(mercaptoethyl)pyridinium monolayer. The different parameters that govern the analytical performance of these electrodes have been studied in detail and optimized. In addition, the organization of the monolayers has been examined by a variety of surface techniques such as XPS, FF-IR, and electrochemistry. Our results show that structuring and understanding the solid-liquid interface at the molecular level are essential for designing probes with superior analytical characteristics.