Self-Efficacy and External Locus of Control as Predictors of Participant Roles in Relational Aggression

Michal Levy*, Thomas P. Gumpel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We examined the extent to which the perceived behavioral control factors of pro-social, emotional, or verbal-social self-efficacy (SE) as well as external locus of control (LOC) explain the variance between different participant roles: relational aggressors, relational victims, relational aggressive-victims, and bystanders. Participants included 1,518 adolescents (61.6% boys and 38.4% girls) from 15 Israeli middle and high schools. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated relational aggressors, and aggressive-victims had lower pro-social SE and higher verbal-social SE than relational victims and bystanders. Relational aggressors, aggressive-victims, and victims had more extensive external LOC than bystanders. The theoretical contribution of verbal-social SE is discussed, and practical implications are highlighted, in particular, regarding the relational aggressive-victim, who exhibits high-risk behaviors.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)NP3015-NP3040
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • external locus of control
  • relational aggression
  • relational victimization
  • self-efficacy
  • Self Efficacy
  • Bullying/psychology
  • Humans
  • Peer Group
  • Male
  • Aggression/psychology
  • Crime Victims/psychology
  • Adolescent
  • Internal-External Control
  • Female


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