Semi-invasive and invasive procedures for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer II: Bronchoscopic and surgical procedures

Naama R. Bogot, Dorith Shaham*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Each of the various techniques used for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer has its advantages and limitations (Table 1). Imaging has a major role in guiding these procedures and deciding which of them is most appropriate in a given clinical setting. A CT examination by which the size and location of the parenchymal lesion and the presence and location of enlarged lymph nodes can be determined is a prerequisite for all sampling procedures. As a general rule, when attempting to diagnose a solitary pulmonary nodule or mass, central lesions are more easily approached by the bronchoscopic route, whereas a transthoracic route is preferred for peripheral lesions. Bronchoscopy is often performed using fluoroscopic guidance, and the recently developed CT fluoroscopy and endoscopic ultrasound have the potential to facilitate transbronchial needle aspiration. A recent advent in imaging of lung cancer has been the introduction of positron emission tomography to the diagnostic work-up of lung cancer. Although this technique has been shown to be highly accurate in determining the malignant or benign nature of lesions, it does not enable histologic diagnosis. In each case, the most appropriate diagnostic procedure should be tailored to suit the specific requirements determined by the characteristics of the disease process, institutional availability of the various diagnostic procedures, and patient preferences, when possible.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)535-544
Number of pages10
JournalRadiologic Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


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