The most common snake in Israel, responsible for most snakebites is Vipera palaestinae (VP). Envenomation signs and symptoms vary from local manifestations to systemic reactions that may end with death. Antivenom treatment, given to high-risk patients, reduces complications and mortality but carries risks. As of now, there is no standardized protocol for adults bitten by VP based on objective clinical and laboratory findings. We conducted A retrospective analysis of 159 patients admitted to two large tertiary care institutions in the center (Hadassah University Medical Center) and south (Soroka University Medical Center) of Israel with Vipera palaestinae bites during 1990–2017. Epidemiological and clinical data were extracted, and the patients were divided into two groups based on hospitalization time (over or under 48 h). 159 patients were included in this study. The average hospitalization time was 66.1 h, with 49.7% of patients admitted over 48 h. The main factors that statistically correlated with a longer hospitalization time were: Male gender, lower extremity bite, platelets lower than 150 K at presentation, leukocyte count of over 10 K at presentation and elevated D-Dimer levels. This study provides factors which are associated with a severe VP envenomation. These clinical or laboratory findings (along with accompanying clinical symptoms) are associated with a higher risk of a prolonged hospitalization with more complications and may require a more intensive treatment and monitoring.
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- Vipera palaestinae