Sex differences in value priorities: Cross-cultural and multimethod studies

Shalom H. Schwartz*, Tammy Rubel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

733 Scopus citations


The authors assess sex differences in the importance of 10 basic values as guiding principles. Findings from 127 samples in 70 countries (N = 77,528) reveal that men attribute consistently more importance than women do to power, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, and self-direction values; the reverse is true for benevolence and universalism values and less consistently for security values. The sexes do not differ on tradition and conformity values. Sex differences are small (median d =.15; maximum d =.32 [power]) and typically explain less variance than age and much less than culture. Culture moderates all sex differences and sample type and measurement instrument have minor influences. The authors discuss compatibility of findings with evolutionary psychology and sex role theory and propose an agenda for future research.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1010-1028
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Cross-cultural
  • Sex differences
  • Values


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