Shared Frailty Methods for Complex Survival Data: A Review of Recent Advances

Malka Gorfine, David M. Zucker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Dependent survival data arise in many contexts. One context is clustered survival data, where survival data are collected on clusters such as families or medical centers. Dependent survival data also arise when multiple survival times are recorded for each individual. Frailty models are one common approach to handle such data. In frailty models, the dependence is expressed in terms of a random effect, called the frailty. Frailty models have been used with both the Cox proportional hazards model and the accelerated failure time model. This article reviews recent developments in the area of frailty models in a variety of settings. In each setting we provide a detailed model description, assumptions, available estimation methods, and R packages.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)51-73
Number of pages23
JournalAnnual Review of Statistics and Its Application
StatePublished - 10 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

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  • Cox regression
  • accelerated failure time model
  • clustered data
  • competing event
  • random survival forest
  • recurrent events
  • regression tree


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