## Abstract

Using the optimal fluctuation method, we evaluate the short-time probability distribution

P(H, L, t ¯ = T) of the spatially averaged height H¯ = (1/L)

R L

0

h(x, t = T) dx of a one-dimensional

interface h(x, t) governed by the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation

∂th = ν∂2

xh +

λ

2

(∂xh)

2 +

√

Dξ(x, t)

on a ring of length L. The process starts from a flat interface, h(x, t = 0) = 0. Both at λH <¯ 0, and

at sufficiently small positive λH¯ the optimal (that is, the least-action) path h(x, t) of the interface,

conditioned on H¯ , is uniform in space, and the distribution P(H, L, T ¯ ) is Gaussian. However, at

sufficiently large λH >¯ 0 the spatially uniform solution becomes sub-optimal and gives way to nonuniform optimal paths. We study them, and the resulting non-Gaussian distribution P(H, L, T ¯ ),

analytically and numerically. The loss of optimality of the uniform solution occurs via a dynamical

phase transition of either first, or second order, depending on the rescaled system size ℓ = L/√

νT,

at a critical value H¯ = H¯c(ℓ). At large but finite ℓ the transition is of first order. Remarkably,

it becomes an “accidental” second-order transition in the limit of ℓ → ∞, where a large-deviation

behavior − ln P(H, L, T ¯ ) ≃ (L/T)f(H¯ ) (in the units λ = ν = D = 1) is observed. At small ℓ the

transition is of second order, while at ℓ = O(1) transitions of both types occur.

P(H, L, t ¯ = T) of the spatially averaged height H¯ = (1/L)

R L

0

h(x, t = T) dx of a one-dimensional

interface h(x, t) governed by the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation

∂th = ν∂2

xh +

λ

2

(∂xh)

2 +

√

Dξ(x, t)

on a ring of length L. The process starts from a flat interface, h(x, t = 0) = 0. Both at λH <¯ 0, and

at sufficiently small positive λH¯ the optimal (that is, the least-action) path h(x, t) of the interface,

conditioned on H¯ , is uniform in space, and the distribution P(H, L, T ¯ ) is Gaussian. However, at

sufficiently large λH >¯ 0 the spatially uniform solution becomes sub-optimal and gives way to nonuniform optimal paths. We study them, and the resulting non-Gaussian distribution P(H, L, T ¯ ),

analytically and numerically. The loss of optimality of the uniform solution occurs via a dynamical

phase transition of either first, or second order, depending on the rescaled system size ℓ = L/√

νT,

at a critical value H¯ = H¯c(ℓ). At large but finite ℓ the transition is of first order. Remarkably,

it becomes an “accidental” second-order transition in the limit of ℓ → ∞, where a large-deviation

behavior − ln P(H, L, T ¯ ) ≃ (L/T)f(H¯ ) (in the units λ = ν = D = 1) is observed. At small ℓ the

transition is of second order, while at ℓ = O(1) transitions of both types occur.

Original language | American English |
---|---|

Publisher | arXiv |

Pages | 1-22 |

Number of pages | 22 |

Volume | 2307.03976 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2023 |