Simple sol-gel process and one-step annealing of vanadium dioxide thin films: Synthesis and thermochromic properties

N. Wang, S. Magdassi, D. Mandler, Y. Long*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


A simple and cost effective sol-gel process for producing vanadium dioxide thin films was developed via thermolysis of V2O5· nH2O (n ≈ 2) VV precursors prepared by dissolving vanadium powder or V2O5 powder in 30% hydrogen peroxide solutions. After spin-coating on fused silica substrates and annealing at 750 C in vacuum, without any intermediate gas reducing step, the major phase VO 2(M, monoclinic phase) was found in both of the films based on V-H2O2 and V2O5-H2O 2 precursor, exhibiting large transmittance changes (> 40%) in the IR region (> 2000 nm) and small hysteresis loop width (< 5 C) which were comparable to reported epitaxial VO2 films. The two films have similar metal-to-insulator transition temperature τC = 62.5 C, lower than the classical value of 68 C for VO2 thin films. In addition, the method enables simple doping, as found for 0.56 at.% W-doped VO2 films. This intrinsically simple solution process followed by one-step annealing makes it potentially useful in smart window applications.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)594-598
Number of pages5
JournalThin Solid Films
StatePublished - 1 May 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under CREATE program: Nanomaterials for Energy and Water Management. The electron microscopy and XRD work were performed at the Facility for Analysis, Characterization, Testing and Simulation (FACTS) in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.


  • One-step annealing
  • Smart window
  • Sol-gel technique
  • Thermochromic materials
  • Vanadium dioxide


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