Social learning across psychological distance

David A. Kalkstein*, Tali Kleiman, Cheryl J. Wakslak, Nira Liberman, Yaacov Trope

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


While those we learn from are often close to us, more and more our learning environments are shifting to include more distant and dissimilar others. The question we examine in 5 studies is how whom we learn from influences what we learn and how what we learn influences from whom we choose to learn it. In Study 1, we show that social learning, in and of itself, promotes higher level (more abstract) learning than does learning based on one's own direct experience. In Studies 2 and 3, we show that when people learn from and emulate others, they tend to do so at a higher level when learning from a distant model than from a near model. Studies 4 and 5 show that thinking about learning at a higher (compared to a lower) level leads individuals to expand the range of others that they will consider learning from. Study 6 shows that when given an actual choice, people prefer to learn low-level information from near sources and high-level information from distant sources. These results demonstrate a basic link between level of learning and psychological distance in social learning processes.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research reported in this article was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award BCS-1349067 and by the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation under Award 25-91551-S2976


  • Construal level theory
  • Psychological distance
  • Social learning


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