Solar Cell Metallization by Laser Transfer of Metal Micro-droplets

Michael Zenou*, Lee Baron, Amir Sa'Ar, Zvi Kotler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) enables a non-contact, mask-less and high-resolution/high-aspect ratio printing of various metals. However, the small gap between the donor (print head) and the acceptor (silicon wafer), which is typically <25 μm, limits its wider use in manufacturing. We demonstrate LIFT printing of metal micro-droplets from a gap larger than 100 μm to provide high quality electrical contacts to silicon. Post annealing process is not required as the contacts are formed instantaneously during the LIFT process. Printing aluminum contacts on p-type (resistivity of 10-30 Ω cm) and p+ type (0.01 Ω cm) Si substrates yields a specific contact resistance of 0.15 mΩ cm2 and 0.03 mΩ cm2 respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the use of LIFT metallization for serially connecting few vertical solar cells that are locally isolated by porous silicon.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)147-155
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Procedia
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2015
Event5th Workshop on Metallization for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, 2014 - Constance, Germany
Duration: 20 Oct 201421 Oct 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Authors.


  • high volatge solar cells
  • laser priting
  • solar cell metallizaion
  • vertical solar cell


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