Source–receptor probability of atmospheric long-distance dispersal of viruses to Israel from the eastern Mediterranean area

Z. Klausner, E. Klement, E. Fattal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD. This aim was achieved by calculating source–receptor relationship probability maps. These maps describe the probability that an infected vector or viral aerosol, once airborne, will have an atmospheric route that can transport it to a distant location. The resultant probability maps demonstrate a seasonal tendency in the probability of specific areas to serve as sources for pathogen LDD into Israel. Specifically, Cyprus’ season is the summer; southern Turkey and the Greek islands of Crete, Karpathos and Rhodes are associated with spring and summer; lower Egypt and Jordan may serve as sources all year round, except the summer months. The method used in this study can easily be implemented to any other geographic region. The importance of this study is the ability to provide a climatologically valid and accurate risk assessment tool to support long-term decisions regarding preparatory actions for future outbreaks long before a specific outbreak occurs.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)205-212
Number of pages8
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


  • arthropod migration
  • eastern Mediterranean
  • risk assessment
  • vector-borne diseases


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