Of special interest in formal verification are safety specifications, which assert that the system stays within some allowed region, in which nothing “bad” happens. Equivalently, a computation violates a safety specification if it has a “bad prefix” – a prefix all whose extensions violate the specification. The theoretical properties of safety specifications as well as their practical advantages with respect to general specifications have been widely studied. Safety is binary: a specification is either safety or not safety. We introduce a quantitative measure for safety. Intuitively, the safety level of a language L measures the fraction of words not in L that have a bad prefix. In particular, a safety language has safety level 1 and a liveness language has safety level 0. Thus, our study spans the spectrum between traditional safety and liveness. The formal definition of safety level is based on probability and measures the probability of a random word not in L to have a bad prefix. We study the problem of finding the safety level of languages given by means of deterministic and nondeterministic automata as well as LTL formulas, and the problem of deciding their membership in specific classes along the spectrum (safety, almost-safety, fraction-safety, etc.). We also study properties of the different classes and the structure of deterministic automata for them.
|Original language||American English|
|Title of host publication||Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis - 13th International Symposium, ATVA 2015, Proceedings|
|Editors||Bernd Finkbeiner, Geguang Pu, Lijun Zhang|
|Number of pages||18|
|State||Published - 2015|
|Event||13th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis, ATVA 2015 - Shanghai, China|
Duration: 12 Oct 2015 → 15 Oct 2015
|Name||Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)|
|Conference||13th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis, ATVA 2015|
|Period||12/10/15 → 15/10/15|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC grant agreement no 278410, and from The Israel Science Foundation (grant no 1229/10).
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.