Sparks: Succinct parallelizable arguments of knowledge

Naomi Ephraim*, Cody Freitag, Ilan Komargodski, Rafael Pass

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

We introduce the notion of a Succinct Parallelizable Argument of Knowledge (SPARK). This is an argument system with the following three properties for computing and proving a time T (non-deterministic) computation:The prover’s (parallel) running time is T + polylog T. (In other words, the prover’s running time is essentially T for large computation times!)The prover uses at most T processors.The communication complexity and verifier complexity are both polylogT. While the third property is standard in succinct arguments, the combination of all three is desirable as it gives a way to leverage moderate parallelism in favor of near-optimal running time. We emphasize that even a factor two overhead in the prover’s parallel running time is not allowed. Our main results are the following, all for non-deterministic polynomial-time RAM computation. We construct (1) an (interactive) SPARK based solely on the existence of collision-resistant hash functions, and (2) a non-interactive SPARK based on any collision-resistant hash function and any SNARK with quasi-linear overhead (as satisfied by recent SNARK constructions).

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020 - 39th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Proceedings
EditorsAnne Canteaut, Yuval Ishai
PublisherSpringer
Pages707-737
Number of pages31
ISBN (Print)9783030457204
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes
Event39th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2020 - Zagreb, Croatia
Duration: 10 May 202014 May 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12105 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference39th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2020
Country/TerritoryCroatia
CityZagreb
Period10/05/2014/05/20

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2020.

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