Floral guides are patterned cues that direct the pollinator to the plant reproductive organs. The spatial distribution of showy visual and olfactory traits allows efficient plant–pollinator interactions. Data on the mechanisms underlying floral volatile patterns or their interactions with pollinators are lacking. Here we characterize the spatial emission patterns of volatiles from the corolla of the model plant Petunia × hybrida and reveal the ability of honeybees to distinguish these patterns. Along the adaxial epidermis, in correlation with cell density, the petal base adjacent to reproductive organs emitted significantly higher levels of volatiles than the distal petal rim. Volatile emission could also be differentiated between the two epidermal surfaces: emission from the adaxial side was significantly higher than that from the abaxial side. Similar emission patterns were also observed in other petunias, Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) and Argyranthemum frutescens (Marguerite daisy). Analyses of transcripts involved in volatile production/emission revealed lower levels of the plasma-membrane transporter ABCG1 in the abaxial versus adaxial epidermis. Transient overexpression of ABCG1 enhanced emission from the abaxial epidermis to the level of the adaxial epidermis, suggesting its involvement in spatial emission patterns in the epidermal layers. Proboscis extension response experiments showed that differences in emission levels along the adaxial epidermis, that is, petal base versus rim, detected by GC-MS are also discernible by honeybees.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Danziger for providing the plant material, Gony Dvir for his assistance with imaging and Dr Einat Zelinger for her help with the electron microscopy. AV is an incumbent of the Wolfson Chair in Floriculture. This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant no. 2511/16).
© 2021 Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- Petunia × hybrida
- floral guides
- floral volatiles
- showy traits
- spatial emission patterns