Spawning induction in the carp: Past experience and future prospects - A review

Z. Yaron*, A. Bogomolnaya, S. Drori, I. Biton, J. Aizen, Z. Kulikovsky, B. Levavi-Sivan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Most fish in aquaculture either fail to breed in captivity or their spawning occurs sporadically and late in the season. This is mainly due to the lack of natural cues in captivity, which leads to dysfunction of the endocrine axis regulating oocyte maturation and ovulation. Hypophysation as a remedy for this situation in fish has been employed in aquaculture since the 1930s and is still widely practiced. However, using crude pituitary homogenates in local hatcheries has frequently ended in failures that were attributed to the inconsistent potency of the injected material and the unknown ovarian stage of the recipient fish. Since the mid 1980s, hypophysation has improved through the introduction of a standardized dry carp pituitary extract in which the luteinizing hormone (LH) content and activity have been calibrated (calibrated carp pituitary extract = CCPE). Induction of spawning, however, is successful mainly in female cohorts in which 65% or more of the oocytes in an ovarian biopsy have migrating germinal vesicles. Further, due to decreasing quantities of industry-processed common carp and the expansion of ornamental carp production (koi and goldfish), the growing demand for CCPE could not be met, and an alternative had to be found. A hypothalamic approach, introduced into Israeli aquaculture in 1993 (called Dagin), combines a superactive analog of sGnRH (10 μg/ kg), with the water-soluble dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist, metoclopramide (20 mg/kg). The progress of oocyte maturation in ovarian biopsies has been studied in parallel with changes in levels of LH, estradiol, and the maturation- inducing steroid (MIS; 17* 20β, dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one). The hormone profile indicated that the gradual increases in LH and MIS following a single administration of Dagin were similar to those in fish treated with priming and resolving doses of CCPE. This would explain why Dagin is effective even when only a single injection is given, saving labor and reducing handling stress. CCPE and Dagin were tested in parallel on common carp in a commercial hatchery. The spawning ratio and embryo viability were similar, although the latency between injection and ovulation was considerably longer and more variable in Dagin-treated than in CCPE-treated carp. It is recommended to use CCPE at the beginning and end of the spawning season when the LH content in the pituitary is low, and Dagin in mid-season and in field spawning. Future prospects raise the possibility that by employing molecular tools, a recombinant carp LH will be produced that will have the regular and expected potency of the hypophyseal approach without the risk of spreading pathogens from donor fish to broodstock. Work along this line is currently in progress.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5-26
Number of pages22
JournalIsraeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh
Volume61
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009

Keywords

  • 17α 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one
  • 17β-estradiol
  • Cyclin B
  • Cyprinus carpio
  • Dagin
  • Dopamine
  • Extract
  • Germinal vesicle
  • GnRH
  • GnRHa
  • Gonadotropin
  • Hypothalamus
  • Maturation-promoting factor
  • Metoclopramide
  • Oocyte maturation
  • Pichia pastoris
  • Pituitary
  • Recombinant LH
  • Spawning induction
  • Vitellogenesis
  • cGtH
  • cLH
  • cdc2 kinase
  • hCG

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